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Labor Migration, Remittances and Household Income: A Comparison between Filipino and Filipina Overseas Workers




Moshe Semyonov and Anastasia Gorodzeisky


The major purpose of the research is to examine gender differences in patterns of labor market activity, economic behavior & economic outcomes among labor migrants. While focusing on Filipina & Filipino overseas workers, the article addresses the following questions: whether & to what extent earnings & remittances of overseas workers differ by gender; & whether & to what extent the gender of overseas workers differentially affects household income in the Philippines. Data for the analysis were obtained from the Survey of Households & Children of Overseas Workers (a representative sample of households drawn in 1999-2000 from four major "labor sending" areas in the Philippines). The analysis focuses on 1,128 households with overseas workers. The findings reveal that men & women are likely to take different jobs & to migrate to different destinations. The analysis also reveals that many more women were unemployed prior to migration & that the earnings of women are, on average, lower than those of men, even after controlling for variations in occupational distributions, country of destination, & sociodemographic attributes. Contrary to popular belief, men send more money back home than do women, even when taking into consideration earnings differentials between the genders. Further analysis demonstrates that income of households with men working overseas is significantly higher than income of households with women working overseas & that this difference can be fully attributed to the earnings disparities & to differences in amount of remittances sent home by overseas workers. The results suggest that gender inequality in the global economy has significant consequences for economic inequality among households in the local economy. The findings & their meaning are evaluated & discussed in light of the household theory of labor migration. 5 Tables, 52 References. Adapted from the source document.

Journal title

International Migration Review





Page numbers


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Economic sectors

Occupations in services - Domestic work and Home support workers, housekeepers and related occupations

Content types

Statistics on work and life conditions

Target groups


Geographical focuses


Spheres of activity

Economics, Gender and sexuality studies, and Political science